AOAC 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Bauer A., Kirby W., Sherris J. C. and Turck M. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45: 493–496.
Blummel M., Karsli A. and Russell J. 2003. Influence of diet on growth yields of rumen micro-organisms in vitro and in vivo: influence on growth yield of variable carbon fluxes to fermentation products. British Journal of Nutrition, 90: 625–634.
Blümmel M., Makkar H. P. S., Chisanga G., Mtimuni J. and Becker K. 1997. The prediction of dry matter intake of temperate and tropical roughages from in vitro digestibility/gas-production data, and the dry matter intake and in vitro digestibility of African roughages in relation to ruminant liveweight gain. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 69: 131–141.
Broderick G. and Kang J. 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63: 64–75.
Broderick G. A. and Clayton M. K. 1997. A statistical evaluation of animal and nutritional factors influencing concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. Journal of Dairy Science, 80: 2964–2971.
Cherry J., Young C. and Shewfelt A. 1975. Characterization of protein isolates from keratinous material of poultry feathers. Journal of Food Scienc, e 40: 331–335.
Cohlberg J. A. 1993. The structure of α-keratin. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 18: 360–362.
Coward-Kelly G., Chang V. S., Agbogbo F. K. and Holtzapple M. T. 2006. Lime treatment of keratinous materials for the generation of highly digestible animal feed: 1. Chicken feathers. Bioresource Technology, 97: 1337–1343.
Cozzi G., Andrighetto I., Berzaghi P. and Andreoli D. 1995. Feather and blood meal as partial replacer of soybean meal in protein supplements for sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 15: 239–245.
Darshan K., Krishnamoorthy U., Kiran D., Bhaskaran R. and Manjunath V. 2007. Effect of supplementing finger millet straw with two concentrates differing in their partitioning factor on dry matter intake, organic matter digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in Karan Friesian crossbred heifers. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137: 35–45.
Gandi J., Holtzapple M. T., Ferrer A., Byers F. M., Turner N. D., Nagwani M. and Chang S. 1997. Lime treatment of agricultural residues to improve rumen digestibility. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 68: 195–211.
Goddard D. R. and Michaelis L. 1934. A study on keratin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 106: 605–614.
Grazziotin A., Pimentel F., De Jong E. and Brandelli A. 2006. Nutritional improvement of feather protein by treatment with microbial keratinase. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 126: 135–144.
Henderickx H. and Martin J. 1963. In vitro study of the nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. Comptes Rendus de Recherches, 31: 7–117.
Holtzapple M. T. and Davison R. R. 1999. Methods of biomass pretreatment. US Patent, 5,865,898.
Holtzapple M. T., Noyes G. P., Davison R. and Granda C. B. 2013. Method and system for solubilizing protein. US Patent, 13,771,688.
Jackson W., Krishnamoorthy U., Robinson P. H. and Fadel J. G. 2010. Effect of changing partitioning factor (PF) and in vitro rate of gas production (k) of diets on intake and digestibility, microbial N production, as well as milk production and composition, of lactating crossbred dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 160: 128–136.
Korniłłowicz-Kowalska T. and Bohacz J. 2011. Biodegradation of keratin waste: Theory and practical aspects. Waste Management, 31: 1689–1701.
Latshaw J. 1990. Quality of feather meal as affected by feather processing conditions. Poultry Science, 69: 953–958.
Moritz J. and Latshaw J. 2001. Indicators of nutritional value of hydrolyzed feather meal. Poultry Science, 80: 79–86.
NRC. 1996. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th ed. Natl. Acad. Press. Washington. DC.
Papadopoulos M., El Boushy A., Roodbeen A. and Ketelaars E. 1986. Effects of processing time and moisture content on amino acid composition and nitrogen characteristics of feather meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 14: 279–290.
Payne J. 1983. Peptide transport in bacteria: methods, mutants and energy coupling. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11: 794–798.
Pittman K. and Bryant M. 1964. Peptides and other nitrogen sources for growth of Bacteroides ruminicola. Journal of Bacteriology, 88: 401–410.
Poel A. F. B. 2000. Handbook of Poultry Feed from Waste: Processing and Use, Springer.
Rajaee Rad A., Ahmadi F. and Zamiri M. J. 2013. A reactor for pretreatment of keratinous waste products of animal and poultry processing plants for production of a proteinous concentrate and biomethane. Iran Patent No. 80,916.
Reynal S. and Broderick G. 2005. Effect of dietary level of rumen-degraded protein on production and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 88: 4045–4064.
SAS. 2009. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) User’s Guide, Rev. 04, SAS Institue, Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Sawyer R. H., Glenn T., French J. O., Mays B., Shames R. B., Barnes G. L., Rhodes W. and Ishikawa Y. 2000. The expression of beta (β) keratins in the epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds. American Zoologist, 40: 530–539.
Sierra R., Granda C. and Holtzapple M. T. 2009. Lime Pretreatment. In Biofuels (ed. JR Mielenz), pp. 115–124, Humana Press.
Sudha S., Krishnamoorthy U., Bhaskaran R. and Robinson P. 2009. Effect of diets differing in rate of gas production on intake, digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in crossbred lactating cows. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 9: 145–154.
Tilley J. and Terry R. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass and Forage Science, 18: 104–111.
Van Soest P., Wine R. and Moore L. 1966. Estimation of the true digestibility of forages by the in vitro digestion of cell walls. In 10th International Grassland Congress, Helsinki, Finland.
Wang X. and Parsons C. 1997. Effect of processing systems on protein quality of feather meals and hog hair meals. Poultry Science, 76: 491–496.
Wilesmith J. W., Ryan J. and Atkinson M. 1991. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiological studies on the origin. Veterinary Record, 128: 199–203.
Xu J., Cheng J. J., Sharma-Shivappa R. R. and Burns J. C. 2010. Lime pretreatment of switchgrass at mild temperatures for ethanol production, Bioresource Technology, 101: 2900–2903.
Yang C. M. 2002. Response of forage fiber degradation by ruminal microorganisms to branched-chain volatile fatty acids, amino acids, and dipeptides. Journal of Dairy Science, 85: 1183–1190.