عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Beekeeping in Iran is one of the production activities that has unique characteristics. One of the characteristics of beekeeping is creating employment with the use of low capital. Therefore, beekeeping can be a good source of income for people with little capital. Although beekeeping is currently one of the low-income jobs, it is possible to increase the income of beekeepers by improving their technical efficiency. Efficiency is considered a very important factor in increasing the production and productivity of production resources, especially in the agricultural economy and rural development of developing countries. On the one hand, these countries face a lack of resources and limited opportunities, and on the other hand, they do not use the existing technologies efficiently; Therefore, studies related to the inefficiency in the production of livestock products and efforts to improve the efficiency and optimal use of resources in these countries will help to increase the productivity of production factors and increase the production of agricultural products. This study aimed to investigate the technological gap ratio (TGR) and factors affecting the technical efficiency of beekeeping in Rudsar Count in Guilan Province of Iran.
Materials and methods: The required data were collected by completing questionnaires from 150 beekeepers in Rudsar County in 2020, which were determined using a random sampling method. In the present study, the data cloud method was used to identify the outliers in the data set. After deleting the outliers, the sample was divided into two homogeneous groups in terms of size using cluster analysis. The BCC model was used to estimate the technical efficiency relative to the group frontier and the metafrontier model was used to estimate the technical efficiency relative to the coverage frontier.
Results and discussion: The results showed that the average TGR of the studied beekeepers is about 76%. This means that if all the studied beekeepers reach metafrontier technology, it is possible to increase production by 24%. Beekeepers that migrate have a higher technological gap ratio and the result of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the difference in TGR is statistically significant. The results of multivariate regression of factors affecting technical efficiency showed that the variables of work experience, type of ownership, participation in training and extension classes, the main job of the beekeeper, number of beehives, and migration variable had a positive and significant effect on technical efficiency of beekeepers. Considering that there is a statistically significant difference between the TGR of beekeepers who migrate and do not migrate, so by solving the problems related to beekeeping migration, the level of beekeepers' production can be improved by using current resources. In the present study, the variable of the number of beehives and ownership had a positive and significant effect on the technical efficiency of beekeepers studied, so the technical efficiency of beekeepers can be increased by increasing the number of beehives and expanding private ownership.
Conclusions: By solving the problems related to the migration of beekeepers, it is possible to improve the production level of beekeepers by using current resources. In addition, by increasing the number of hives and developing private ownership, the technical efficiency of beekeepers can be increased. Considering that some farmers and gardeners do not allow beekeepers' hives to settle in their fields and gardens due to ignorance of the importance of bee pollination, it is necessary to promote cultural activities in this regard. Also, providing the necessary conditions for beekeepers to have easier and cheaper access to production inputs, such as giving low-interest loans, can increase the production of beekeepers and increase their income.